**Chapter 1 Introduction to
Alternating Current 1**

Outline 1

Overview 2

Objectives 2

Electron Theory 3

1.1 Electron Flow Theory 4

1.2 Sources of Electrical Energy 4

Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors 6

Ohm’s Law 8

1.3 Cross-Sectional Area and Resistance 8

1.4 Eddy Currents 10

1.5 Skin Effect 10

DC Circuit Analysis 11

1.6 Series Circuits 11

1.7 Parallel Circuits 12

1.8 Combination Circuits 14

1.9 Ohm’s Law and Power 15

Voltage Drop in Wire 16

Permanent Magnets 18

1.10 Electromagnetism 18

1.11 Magnetic Coils 21

Magnetism, Conductors, and Movement 22

1.12 AC and DC Generators 23

Summary 25

Review Questions 25

Practice Problems 25

**Chapter 2 Production of the
AC Sine Wave 27**

Outline 27

Overview 28

Objectives 28

AC Generators 29

Instantaneous Value of a Sine Wave 32

AC Sine Wave Measurements 33

2.1 Peak and Peak-to-Peak 33

2.2 RMS 34

2.3 Average 35

Construction of AC Generators 38

Revolving Armature AC Generators 38

Alternator Construction 39

Revolving Field AC Generator 39

Generator Excitation 40

Multiple Pole Generators 41

Summary 43

Review Questions 43

Practice Problems 44

**Chapter 3 Inductors, Self
Induction, Inductive Reactance, and Impedance 45**

Outline 45

Overview 46

Objectives 46

Inductance 47

Inductors 47

Theory of Self-Induction 47

Lenz’s Law 50

Henry 52

Physical Factors Affecting Inductance 52

3.1 Number of Turns of Wire 52

3.2 Spacing between the Turns 52

3.3 Cross-Sectional Area of the Core 54

3.4 Permeability of the Core Material 54

Inductive Reactance 55

Lagging Current 56

Impedance 58

Summary 62

Review Questions 62

**Chapter 4 Resistors and
Inductors in Series 63**

Outline 63

Overview 64

Objectives 64

Inductors Connected in Series 65

Inductors with Aiding or Opposing Fields 67

Impedance of an Inductor 69

Q of a Coil 70

Resistors and Coils in Series 70

4.1 One Resistor and Coil 70

4.2 Resistors and a Coil 71

4.3 Two Coils in Series 72

4.4 Resistors and Inductors in Series 73

Total Z, E and I and Component Z, E and I in a Series Circuit 76

Power Factor, Phase Angle, and Watts in a Series Circuit 79

Types of Power 80

4.5 True Power 80

4.6 Reactive Power 81

4.7 Apparent Power 82

4.8 Power Factor 82

Variations in Circuit Values 83

Rise Time of Inductor Current 84

Exponential Rates and Time Constants 86

Summary 87

Review Questions 87

**Chapter 5 Capacitors,
Capacitance, and Capacitive Reactance 89**

Outline 89

Overview 90

Objectives 90

Capacitance 91

5.1 Schematic Symbols and Markings 91

Capacitance Formulas 92

Capacitor Construction and Ratings 92

5.2 Physical Characteristics 91

Theory of Capacitive Action 94

Electrostatic Charge 95

Voltage and Current Relationship in a Capacitor 96

Capacitors and Current 96

Voltage Ratings 98

5.3 The Effects of Dielectric Thickness 99

Dielectric Characteristics 100

5.4 Dielectric Stress 100

5.5 Dielectric Constants 100

Number of Plate Interactions 101

Capacitor Types 104

5.6 Electrolytic 104

5.7 Oil-Filled Capacitors 105

Testing Capacitors 105

Charge and Discharge Rates 106

Capacitive Reactance 109

5.8 Capacitive Reactance Formula 111

Calculating Capacitance from Capacitive Reactance 113

Summary 115

Review Questions 116

Practice Problems 116

**Chapter 6 Capacitors and
Resistors in Series 117**

Outline 117

Overview 118

Objectives 118

Capacitors in Series 119

Series Capacitor Formulas 120

Capacitive Reactance in Series 122

Resistive Capacitive Series Circuits 122

Impedance 124

6.1 Adding Series Components 124

Calculating Voltage Drops for Series RC Components 126

Impedance and Voltage Triangles for RC Circuits 128

Power 129

6.2 Angle Theta 131

The Effects of Charging Variables on RC Circuits 133

Summary 136

Review Questions 136

Practice Problems 137

**Chapter 7 RLC Series
Circuits 139**

Outline 139

Overview 140

Objectives 140

RLC Series Circuits 141

7.1 Circuit Calculations 141

7.2 Voltage Drop 143

7.3 Power in RLC Series Circuits 146

7.4 Power Factor 148

Frequency Effects and Series Resonance 148

Series Circuit with Coil Resistance 150

Summary 156

Review Questions 156

Practice Problems 157

**Chapter 8 Parallel RL
Circuits 159**

Outline 159

Overview 160

Objectives 160

Review of Parallel Circuit Laws 161

Inductors Connected in Parallel 161

Inductive Reactance in Parallel 162

Pure Inductors (High Q) and Resistors in Parallel 164

Coils with Impedance in Parallel with Resistors 165

Current, Impedance, Voltage, and Power 167

8.1 Impedance of the Circuit 168

8.2 Voltage of the Circuit 168

8.3 Power in this Circuit 168

Multiple Coils with Wire Resistance and Resistors in Parallel
171

Summary 174

Review Questions 174

Practice Problems 174

**Chapter 9 Parallel RC
Circuits 175**

Outline 175

Overview 176

Objectives 176

Capacitors in Parallel 177

Capacitive Reactance in Parallel 178

RC Parallel Circuits 180

Circuit Values 180

9.1 Circuit Currents 180

9.2 Circuit Impedance 182

Voltage 182

Power in RC Parallel AC Circuits 182

9.3 Apparent Power 183

9.4 Reactive Power 183

Power Factor 184

Angle Theta (θ) 184

Multiple Resistors and Capacitors in Parallel 184

Effects on Changing Circuit Variables 187

Summary 188

Review Questions 188

Practice Problems 189

**Chapter 10 Parallel RLC
Circuits 191**

Outline 191

Overview 192

Objectives 192

Parallel RLC Circuits 193

Calculating Parallel RLC Circuit Values 194

10.1 Resistive Current 194

10.2 Inductive Current 194

10.3 Inductance 195

10.4 Capacitive Current 195

10.5 Capacitance 195

10.6 Impedance 195

Total Circuit Calculations 197

10.7 Total Current 197

10.8 Alternate Way to Calculate Total Current 198

Power Calculations 198

10.9 True Power 199

10.10 Reactive (VAR) Power 199

10.11 Apparent Power 200

Power Factor 200

Angle Theta (θ) 201

Determining Impedance Using the Assumed Voltage Method 201

Parallel Resonant Circuits 203

Summary 206

Review Questions 206

Practice Problems 207

**Chapter 11 Combination
Parallel RLC Circuits 209**

Outline 209

Overview 210

Objectives 210

Combination RLC Circuits 211

Circuit Analysis: Resistance, Inductance, and Capacitance 211

11.1 Parallel Component Vector Addition 212

Circuit Total Vector Addition 213

Voltage Drop Calculations for Combination Circuits 214

Power Calculations 216

Series Circuits in Parallel 218

Power Factor Correction 219

Complex Circuit Evaluation 221

11.2 Impedance Calculation 222

11.3 Voltage Calculation 223

11.4 Power Calculations 224

A Forensic Evaluation 224

Summary 226

Review Questions 226

Practice Problems 227

**Chapter 12 AC Filter
Circuits 229**

Outline 229

Overview 230

Objectives 230

Filter Operation and Classification 231

12.1 Filter Operation 231

12.2 Filter Classification 231

Low-Pass Filters 232

12.3 Half-Power Point 234

12.4 Inductive Low-Pass Filter 236

12.5 Capacitive Low-Pass Filter 236

12.6 Combined LC Low-Pass Filter 237

High-Pass Filters 238

12.7 Capacitive High-Pass Filter 240

12.8 Inductive High-Pass Filter 241

12.9 Combined LC High-Pass Filter 242

Band-Pass Filters 243

12.10 Series RLC Band-Pass Filter 244

12.11 Band-Pass Filter with Parallel Load 245

Band-Reject Filters 247

12.12 Band-Reject Filter with Parallel Load 248

Complex Filters 249

12.13 T-Type Filter 249

12.14 -Type Filter 250

12.15 Other Complex Filters 251

Summary 252

Review Questions 252

Practice Problems 253

**Chapter 13 Generators 255**

Outline 255

Overview 256

Objectives 256

Induction by Magnetism 257

Generator Characteristics 257

Sine Wave Generation and Conversion to DC 259

13.1 Commutating the Output of an AC Armature 260

Major Generator Components 262

13.2 Brushes 263

13.3 Field Windings 264

13.4 Pole Pieces 264

Generator Connection Types 265

13.5 Series Generators 265

13.6 Shunt Generators 266

13.7 Compound Generators 267

Generator Losses 269

Armature Reaction 270

Paralleling DC Generators 272

AC Generator Principles of Operation 272

Construction of AC Generators 274

13.8 Revolving Armature AC Generators 275

13.9 Revolving Field AC Generators 276

Rotor Construction 277

13.10 Salient Pole Construction 277

13.11 Round Rotor Construction 278

Excitation Systems 279

13.12 Permanent Magnet Fields 279

13.13 DC Electromagnetic Field 279

Generator Cooling 281

Frequency and Output Voltage 282

Output Voltage, Frequency, and Power 283

Paralleling AC Generators 283

Summary 287

Review Questions 288

Practice Problems 288

**Chapter 14 AC Motors 289**

Outline 289

Overview 290

Objectives 290

Motor Action 291

Single-Phase AC Motors 292

Synchronous Speed 294

Induction Motor 294

Motor Variations 296

Three-Phase Motors 297

14.1 Rotating Magnetic Field of a Wye-Connected Motor 298

14.2 Three-Phase Delta Motor 300

Three-Phase Induction Rotor 302

Generator Effect in a Motor 302

Variable Frequency Drives 302

Summary 306

Review Questions 306

Chapter 15 Transformers 307

Outline 307

Overview 308

Objectives 308

Principles of Transformation 309

Voltage, Current, and Power Characteristics 310

Calculations for Primary and Secondary 311

Characteristics of Transformer Operation 314

Transformer Impedance 317

Transformer Lead Marking 319

Single-Phase Transformer Connections 321

Multi-Coil Transformers 323

Three-Phase Transformer Connections 324

Summary 328

Review Questions 328

**Appendix A Mathematics:
Using Vectors Effectively 329**

**Glossary 341**

**Index 345**