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AC Theory - NJATC
 

AC Theory 3E - NJATC
DE-1435489020
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DC Theory 3E - NJATC
DC Theory - NJATC

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AC Theory, 3E

Third Edition
Author: NJATC

An ideal resource for anyone seeking a fundamental knowledge of AC theory.

Designed to provide readers with a thorough introduction to Alternating Current electrical characteristics and circuit construction, AC THEORY, 3rd edition explores the complexities of this more advanced circuit theory by building on the basics established in Direct Current (DC) Theory.

The book begins with an overview of the primary components of AC circuits, such as resistors, inductors, and capacitors, and then gradually introduces new, more complicated topics like applying AC principles in power generation and generators, parallel and combination circuits, troubleshooting and evaluation of circuit conditions, and more.

With the same reader-friendly approach and practical examples that made previous editions so successful, this updated 3rd edition uses the most current technologies and trends to provide an ideal resource for anyone seeking a fundamental knowledge of AC theory.

Features:
  • NEW! Illustrates key concepts with enhanced 3-dimensional images.
  • Builds on students' knowledge by following a clear, logical progression from simplest concepts to more advanced principles.
  • "Technical Tips" explain industry practices and trade jargon to develop practical understanding.
  • Sidebars offer a true-to-life context for the topics covered through additional references, applications, and highlights of general interest to keep the theory more interesting and applicable.
  • NEW! Makes powerful connections between theory and practice with the addition of new real-world examples.
  • NEW! Updated, dynamic art to further clarify written examples.

About the Author:

National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee:

NJATC develops and standardizes training for National Electrical Contractors Association and the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, which represents more than 780,000 members working in a wide variety of fields around North America.

Contents:

Chapter 1 Introduction to Alternating Current 1

Outline 1
Overview 2
Objectives 2
Electron Theory 3
1.1 Electron Flow Theory 4
1.2 Sources of Electrical Energy 4
Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors 6
Ohmís Law 8
1.3 Cross-Sectional Area and Resistance 8
1.4 Eddy Currents 10
1.5 Skin Effect 10
DC Circuit Analysis 11
1.6 Series Circuits 11
1.7 Parallel Circuits 12
1.8 Combination Circuits 14
1.9 Ohmís Law and Power 15
Voltage Drop in Wire 16
Permanent Magnets 18
1.10 Electromagnetism 18
1.11 Magnetic Coils 21
Magnetism, Conductors, and Movement 22
1.12 AC and DC Generators 23
Summary 25
Review Questions 25
Practice Problems 25

Chapter 2 Production of the AC Sine Wave 27

Outline 27
Overview 28
Objectives 28
AC Generators 29
Instantaneous Value of a Sine Wave 32
AC Sine Wave Measurements 33
2.1 Peak and Peak-to-Peak 33
2.2 RMS 34
2.3 Average 35
Construction of AC Generators 38
Revolving Armature AC Generators 38
Alternator Construction 39
Revolving Field AC Generator 39
Generator Excitation 40
Multiple Pole Generators 41
Summary 43
Review Questions 43
Practice Problems 44

Chapter 3 Inductors, Self Induction, Inductive Reactance, and Impedance 45

Outline 45
Overview 46
Objectives 46
Inductance 47
Inductors 47
Theory of Self-Induction 47
Lenzís Law 50
Henry 52
Physical Factors Affecting Inductance 52
3.1 Number of Turns of Wire 52
3.2 Spacing between the Turns 52
3.3 Cross-Sectional Area of the Core 54
3.4 Permeability of the Core Material 54
Inductive Reactance 55
Lagging Current 56
Impedance 58
Summary 62
Review Questions 62

Chapter 4 Resistors and Inductors in Series 63

Outline 63
Overview 64
Objectives 64
Inductors Connected in Series 65
Inductors with Aiding or Opposing Fields 67
Impedance of an Inductor 69
Q of a Coil 70
Resistors and Coils in Series 70
4.1 One Resistor and Coil 70
4.2 Resistors and a Coil 71
4.3 Two Coils in Series 72
4.4 Resistors and Inductors in Series 73
Total Z, E and I and Component Z, E and I in a Series Circuit 76
Power Factor, Phase Angle, and Watts in a Series Circuit 79
Types of Power 80
4.5 True Power 80
4.6 Reactive Power 81
4.7 Apparent Power 82
4.8 Power Factor 82
Variations in Circuit Values 83
Rise Time of Inductor Current 84
Exponential Rates and Time Constants 86
Summary 87
Review Questions 87

Chapter 5 Capacitors, Capacitance, and Capacitive Reactance 89

Outline 89
Overview 90
Objectives 90
Capacitance 91
5.1 Schematic Symbols and Markings 91
Capacitance Formulas 92
Capacitor Construction and Ratings 92
5.2 Physical Characteristics 91
Theory of Capacitive Action 94
Electrostatic Charge 95
Voltage and Current Relationship in a Capacitor 96
Capacitors and Current 96
Voltage Ratings 98
5.3 The Effects of Dielectric Thickness 99
Dielectric Characteristics 100
5.4 Dielectric Stress 100
5.5 Dielectric Constants 100
Number of Plate Interactions 101
Capacitor Types 104
5.6 Electrolytic 104
5.7 Oil-Filled Capacitors 105
Testing Capacitors 105
Charge and Discharge Rates 106
Capacitive Reactance 109
5.8 Capacitive Reactance Formula 111
Calculating Capacitance from Capacitive Reactance 113
Summary 115
Review Questions 116
Practice Problems 116

Chapter 6 Capacitors and Resistors in Series 117

Outline 117
Overview 118
Objectives 118
Capacitors in Series 119
Series Capacitor Formulas 120
Capacitive Reactance in Series 122
Resistive Capacitive Series Circuits 122
Impedance 124
6.1 Adding Series Components 124
Calculating Voltage Drops for Series RC Components 126
Impedance and Voltage Triangles for RC Circuits 128
Power 129
6.2 Angle Theta 131
The Effects of Charging Variables on RC Circuits 133
Summary 136
Review Questions 136
Practice Problems 137

Chapter 7 RLC Series Circuits 139

Outline 139
Overview 140
Objectives 140
RLC Series Circuits 141
7.1 Circuit Calculations 141
7.2 Voltage Drop 143
7.3 Power in RLC Series Circuits 146
7.4 Power Factor 148
Frequency Effects and Series Resonance 148
Series Circuit with Coil Resistance 150
Summary 156
Review Questions 156
Practice Problems 157

Chapter 8 Parallel RL Circuits 159

Outline 159
Overview 160
Objectives 160
Review of Parallel Circuit Laws 161
Inductors Connected in Parallel 161
Inductive Reactance in Parallel 162
Pure Inductors (High Q) and Resistors in Parallel 164
Coils with Impedance in Parallel with Resistors 165
Current, Impedance, Voltage, and Power 167
8.1 Impedance of the Circuit 168
8.2 Voltage of the Circuit 168
8.3 Power in this Circuit 168
Multiple Coils with Wire Resistance and Resistors in Parallel 171
Summary 174
Review Questions 174
Practice Problems 174

Chapter 9 Parallel RC Circuits 175

Outline 175
Overview 176
Objectives 176
Capacitors in Parallel 177
Capacitive Reactance in Parallel 178
RC Parallel Circuits 180
Circuit Values 180
9.1 Circuit Currents 180
9.2 Circuit Impedance 182
Voltage 182
Power in RC Parallel AC Circuits 182
9.3 Apparent Power 183
9.4 Reactive Power 183
Power Factor 184
Angle Theta (θ) 184
Multiple Resistors and Capacitors in Parallel 184
Effects on Changing Circuit Variables 187
Summary 188
Review Questions 188
Practice Problems 189

Chapter 10 Parallel RLC Circuits 191

Outline 191
Overview 192
Objectives 192
Parallel RLC Circuits 193
Calculating Parallel RLC Circuit Values 194
10.1 Resistive Current 194
10.2 Inductive Current 194
10.3 Inductance 195
10.4 Capacitive Current 195
10.5 Capacitance 195
10.6 Impedance 195
Total Circuit Calculations 197
10.7 Total Current 197
10.8 Alternate Way to Calculate Total Current 198
Power Calculations 198
10.9 True Power 199
10.10 Reactive (VAR) Power 199
10.11 Apparent Power 200
Power Factor 200
Angle Theta (θ) 201
Determining Impedance Using the Assumed Voltage Method 201
Parallel Resonant Circuits 203
Summary 206
Review Questions 206
Practice Problems 207

Chapter 11 Combination Parallel RLC Circuits 209

Outline 209
Overview 210
Objectives 210
Combination RLC Circuits 211
Circuit Analysis: Resistance, Inductance, and Capacitance 211
11.1 Parallel Component Vector Addition 212
Circuit Total Vector Addition 213
Voltage Drop Calculations for Combination Circuits 214
Power Calculations 216
Series Circuits in Parallel 218
Power Factor Correction 219
Complex Circuit Evaluation 221
11.2 Impedance Calculation 222
11.3 Voltage Calculation 223
11.4 Power Calculations 224
A Forensic Evaluation 224
Summary 226
Review Questions 226
Practice Problems 227

Chapter 12 AC Filter Circuits 229

Outline 229
Overview 230
Objectives 230
Filter Operation and Classification 231
12.1 Filter Operation 231
12.2 Filter Classification 231
Low-Pass Filters 232
12.3 Half-Power Point 234
12.4 Inductive Low-Pass Filter 236
12.5 Capacitive Low-Pass Filter 236
12.6 Combined LC Low-Pass Filter 237
High-Pass Filters 238
12.7 Capacitive High-Pass Filter 240
12.8 Inductive High-Pass Filter 241
12.9 Combined LC High-Pass Filter 242
Band-Pass Filters 243
12.10 Series RLC Band-Pass Filter 244
12.11 Band-Pass Filter with Parallel Load 245
Band-Reject Filters 247
12.12 Band-Reject Filter with Parallel Load 248
Complex Filters 249
12.13 T-Type Filter 249
12.14 -Type Filter 250
12.15 Other Complex Filters 251
Summary 252
Review Questions 252
Practice Problems 253

Chapter 13 Generators 255

Outline 255
Overview 256
Objectives 256
Induction by Magnetism 257
Generator Characteristics 257
Sine Wave Generation and Conversion to DC 259
13.1 Commutating the Output of an AC Armature 260
Major Generator Components 262
13.2 Brushes 263
13.3 Field Windings 264
13.4 Pole Pieces 264
Generator Connection Types 265
13.5 Series Generators 265
13.6 Shunt Generators 266
13.7 Compound Generators 267
Generator Losses 269
Armature Reaction 270
Paralleling DC Generators 272
AC Generator Principles of Operation 272
Construction of AC Generators 274
13.8 Revolving Armature AC Generators 275
13.9 Revolving Field AC Generators 276
Rotor Construction 277
13.10 Salient Pole Construction 277
13.11 Round Rotor Construction 278
Excitation Systems 279
13.12 Permanent Magnet Fields 279
13.13 DC Electromagnetic Field 279
Generator Cooling 281
Frequency and Output Voltage 282
Output Voltage, Frequency, and Power 283
Paralleling AC Generators 283
Summary 287
Review Questions 288
Practice Problems 288

Chapter 14 AC Motors 289

Outline 289
Overview 290
Objectives 290
Motor Action 291
Single-Phase AC Motors 292
Synchronous Speed 294
Induction Motor 294
Motor Variations 296
Three-Phase Motors 297
14.1 Rotating Magnetic Field of a Wye-Connected Motor 298
14.2 Three-Phase Delta Motor 300
Three-Phase Induction Rotor 302
Generator Effect in a Motor 302
Variable Frequency Drives 302
Summary 306
Review Questions 306
Chapter 15 Transformers 307
Outline 307
Overview 308
Objectives 308
Principles of Transformation 309
Voltage, Current, and Power Characteristics 310
Calculations for Primary and Secondary 311
Characteristics of Transformer Operation 314
Transformer Impedance 317
Transformer Lead Marking 319
Single-Phase Transformer Connections 321
Multi-Coil Transformers 323
Three-Phase Transformer Connections 324
Summary 328
Review Questions 328

Appendix A Mathematics: Using Vectors Effectively 329

Glossary 341

Index 345

384 Pages - 8-1/2 x 11 in. - Hardcover
Copyright 2011

Related:

more Electrical Theory
2014 NEC and Related
2011 NEC and Related
2008 NEC and Related
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Electrical Calculations

Tools for Electricians
Electrical Supplies

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Construction Related
Building Code Related
HVAC Exam Prep

HVAC Related

1435489020 / 9781435489028
1418073431 / 9781418073435


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